ABOVE: The 1813 Cruikshank caricature of The Prince of Whales: The Fisherman at Anchor.................. Read Colleen Sheehan's articles (including the footnotes) for the amazing Jane Austen connection:
http://www.jasna.org/persuasions/on-line/vol27no1/sheehan.htm


FOLLOW ME ON TWITTER: @JaneAustenCode

MY MOST RECENT PRESENTATIONS WERE...

...Halloween, 2010, when I addressed the JASNA AGM in Portland re: "Remember the country and age in which we live": The Covert Death-in-childbirth Anti-parody in Northanger Abbey"

http://www.jasna.org/agms/portland/breakout.html

AND MY OTHER RECENT PRESENTATIONS HAVE BEEN:

...to various JASNA chapters re: “The Shadow Story of Emma: Jane Austen, the Secret Feminist”:

In NYC....

http://www.jasnany.org/pdf/may1.pdf

...and also in Ft. Lauderdale, Miami, Gainesville, Atlanta, Portland, San Francisco, Los Angeles, and Sacramento.

WANT ME TO GIVE A PRESENTATION TO YOUR JASNA REGIONAL GROUP, TOO?

I want to present to other JASNA chapters. Email arnieperlstein@myacc.net if you're interested!


Thursday, April 17, 2014

“Now and then I shall hope to have a friend in my little cottage (I shall always have a bed for a friend)”: The Real, Unspeakable Reason Why Mrs. Norris Doesn’t Want Fanny to Live With her in the White House



In Janeites & Austen L today, Christy Somer wrote: “Ellen, You mentioned the 'six-hundred a year' Mrs. Norris would be receiving..... I read this as well in my own 'Charnwood' UK reading copy of MP.  And the original 1814 copy …also has these lines: "I hope, sister, things are not so very bad with you, neither -considering Sir Thomas says you will have six hundred a year." But strangely, I've not found any other online versions of MP which include these particular lines…So I'm thinking, for whatever reasons, some Victorian editions of the novels -excluded them. And Aunt Norris has been 'saver' rather than a 'spender'….”

Ellen Moody replied: I'd like to confirm Christy's comment that some editions of Mansfield Park have Mrs Norris's income cited and others don't….So the first edition named the sum and had franker satiric language in Lady Bertram's mouth.”

Christy and Ellen, you’ve missed the true purpose of the deletion, but you’ve done me a great service, because I had previously been utterly unaware of that deletion, and you know from my comments about JEAL’s deletions from JA’s letters how I feel about that sort of censorship of JA’s true voice. But thanks to your eagle eye, Christy, I looked into this and, as my Subject Line indicates, I found out that it really was a great deal more like the deletion of Mrs. Jennings’s too-frank reference to illegitimacy that was deleted from the 2d edition of S&S. I hope that by the end of this message, you won’t be feeling like you wish you hadn’t pointed it out in the first place!

It’s really easy to show exactly what I mean. First, here is the relevant passage from the 2nd  edition….

"Then you will not mind living by yourself quite alone?"
"Lady Bertram, I do not complain. I know I cannot live as I have done, but I must retrench where I can, and learn to be a better manager. I have been a liberal housekeeper enough, but I shall not be ashamed to practise economy now. My situation is as much altered as my income. A great many things were due from poor Mr. Norris, as clergyman of the parish, that cannot be expected from me. It is unknown how much was consumed in our kitchen by odd comers and goers. At the White House, matters must be better looked after. I must live within my income, or I shall be miserable; and I own it would give me great satisfaction to be able to do rather more, to lay by a little at the end of the year."
"I dare say you will. You always do, don't you?"

…and now, here is the relevant passage from the 1st edition, BEFORE the deletion:

"Then you will not mind living by yourself quite alone?"
["Dear Lady Bertram! what am I fit for but solitude? Now and then I shall hope to have a friend in my little cottage (I shall always have a bed for a friend); but the most part of my future days will be spent in utter seclusion. If I can but make both ends meet, that's all I ask for."
"I hope, sister, things are not so very bad with you neither, considering Sir Thomas says you will have six hundred a-year." ]
"Lady Bertram, I do not complain….[then continuing exactly as in the 2nd edition]

Don’t you see? It wasn’t merely the wealthy Lady Bertram making a snide remark about Mrs. Norris having enough income, as if there was any sort of parity between the adverse impact of  Sir Thomas’s high grade financial worries back on the ‘ol plantation now that those damned anti-slavers like Clarkson had finally ended the slave trade, and the precarious finances of an ageing  widow with a meager income and no prospects for remarriage.

If that HAD been the offending passage, the deletion would have been much smaller, it would have been limited only to the following comment by Lady B:

"I hope, sister, things are not so very bad with you neither, considering Sir Thomas says you will have six hundred a-year." ]

That would have worked just as cleanly and would have left Mrs. Norris’s speech about her  solitude intact. But, you see, the bit about Mrs. Norris’s income is small potatoes. The real “scandal” that triggered this deletion in the first place is contained in Mrs. Norris’s response to Lady Bertram, a response which was cleanly excised like a cancerous mole from someone’s face:   

“Now and then I shall hope to have a friend in my little cottage (I shall always have a bed for a friend)”

It’s clear to me from the FACT of the deletion that there was indeed pressure put on JA from members of her family (fascinating to speculate which ones they might’ve been)—all those who were scandalized by JA daring to have one of her characters describe the actual living arrangement at Chawton Cottage, which did not merely involve JA and CEA, but also Martha Lloyd----one which apparently had been raising bigoted eyebrows since 1809 (i.e., for seven years!), in so suggestive a manner.

And the context of Mrs. Norris’s deleted speech makes clear that Lady Bertram was having some sadistic fun with her sister—Mrs. Norris doesn’t just speak about her keeping a bed for a friend out of the clear blue sky—no, she was provoked to say this by Lady Bertram’s “casual” suggestion that Fanny ought to go live with Mrs. Norris! So, we can begin to put two and two together, and realize that Mrs. Norris most of all doesn’t want Fanny living (and sleeping) in the White House with her, because then, well, Mrs. Norris won’t have the same complete solitude she enjoyed, a solitude that made those sleepover visits from friends so convenient and….discreet.

Puts a whole new slant on Mrs. Norris and why she never remarried after Mr. Norris  died, doesn’t it? And maybe we begin to see that Sir Thomas really did have TWO wives—the one who slept with him (and then otherwise, slept in most other situations, too), and the one who ran his household—and each of  them getting exactly what they wanted (and didn’t want) from him!

So, I am glad that Jane Austen always had a bed for a friend, and I hope that it provided her with a cure for solitude. And now, Christy, thanks to your eagle eye, JA’s original desire to tell the world about her life has finally been honored by reinstatement, and I hope my post will inspire future editors of MP to RESTORE this TRULY scandalous deletion!

Cheers, ARNIE
@JaneAustenCode on Twitter

Wednesday, April 16, 2014

Letter 149 and The Herschel Connection Behind JA's "Lunar Observation"

In Letter 149 to 12-year  old niece Caroline, Jane Austen wrote this about “Anne”, apparently a fictional character created by Caroline herself:  
 
“She should not only place her Quilt in the Centre, but give its' Latitude & Longitude, & measure its Dimensions by a LUNAR OBSERVATION if she chose.”

Ellen Moody wrote this in Janeites & Austen-L: "I take “Lunar” to be a reference to the group that met calling themselves the Lunar Society and that’s interesting because it shows her awareness of philosophical cults in her time. She did know Maria Edgeworth enough to send her a copy of Emma so she might have been able to hear of Edgeworth, Day and that group’s activities. They were located in Birmingham: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_Society_of_Birmingham  "

And then Diana Birchall replied: "Good on Ellen, picking up that "Lunar" shows Jane Austen's awareness of the Lunar Society!"

Yes, Diana, it is very good on Ellen, thank you for alerting me to what she wrote, which I had not noticed earlier.

But you and she have only scratched the surface of the full extent of the "goodness" of Ellen's catch, because it’s even better than the explanation Ellen stated. Let me explain.

First of all, it’s not news that JA was aware of the Lunar Society. In the below-linked 1993 Persuasions article by a Staffordship native, Gaye King…


…we hear all about JA’s one degree of separation from various members of the Lunar Society, which had its center of gravity, so to speak, in and near Staffordshire. In that article, King gave excellent background on the luminaries the Austen women might have encountered socially during their 1806 trip to Hamstall Ridware in Staffordshire (the major city of which, I believe, is Newcastle, where, interestingly, Wickham is initially stationed after he and Lydia are married).

King’s article describes the Lunar Society social circle, which included the Austens’ cousin, the porcine Revd. Edward Cooper.

[I describe him as porcine because of CEA’s satirical portrait of his face in the guise of one of Edward IV in JA’s History of England (as per Annette Upfal’s persuasive case for that satire):

Anyway, it’s therefore been known for 20 years that JA was only one degree of separation removed from that illustrious circle, one of the famous members of which was Erasmus Darwin, of  course grandpa to Charles Darwin, but in his time one of the great famous names of British science and culture.

And, on top of that, I’ve known since 2005 that JA was aware of the Lunar Society in an even more direct way than King’s article demonstrates, because I discovered (as I’ve posted numerous times since) that the “Mrs. Pole” who gives such a sophisticated, laudatory opinion about Mansfield Park was actually the widow of Erasmus Darwin himself!:

(one post among many of mine on various aspects of Mrs. Pole vis a vis JA)

So, if JA was connected closely enough to Mrs. Pole aka Mrs. Darwin to elicit such praise of MP in 1814-5, it is not at all surprising that JA would refer to “lunar observation” in 1817. But that is still peripheral to what I think is the deepest significance of JA’s specific reference to “lunar observation” in Letter 149.

The salient fact here is that the name of one of the members of the Lunar Society was actually virtually synonymous with “lunar observation”, because he was the greatest astronomer of the 18th century, and also a designer of state of the art telescopes, who famously observed (in many cases from his observatory in--you'll never guess---BATH!) not only Earth’s moon, but also discovered moons of other planets as well, as well as discovering the planet Uranus itself---of course I am talking about William Herschel!

In fact, Erasmus Darwin included an oblique tribute to his friend, Herschel, in Canto 2 of Darwin’s famous poem, The Loves of the Plants:

--The calm Philosopher in ether fails,
Views broader stars, and breathes in purer gales;
Sees, like a map, in many a waving line
Round Earth's blue plains her lucid waters mine; 45
Sees at his feet the forky lightnings glow,
And hears innocuous thunders roar below.
----Rise, great MONGOLFIER! urge thy venturous flight
High o'er the Moon's pale ice-REFLECTED light;
High o'er the pearly Star, whose beamy horn. 50
Hangs in the east, gay harbinger of morn;
Leave the red eye of Mars on rapid wing;
Jove's silver guards, and Saturn's dusky ring;
Leave the fair beams, which, issuing from afar;
Play with new lustres round the Georgian star;  55
Shun with strong oars the Sun's ATTRACTIVE throne,
The sparkling zodiack, and the MILKY zone;
Where headlong COMETS with increasing force
Through other systems bend their BLAZING course.-
For thee Cassiope her chair withdraws, 60
For thee the Bear retracts his shaggy paws;
High o'er the North thy golden orb shall roll,
And BLAZE ETERNAL round the WONDERING pole.
So Argo, rising from the southern main,
Lights with new stars the BLUE etherial plain;  65
With favoring beams the mariner protects,
And the bold course, which first it steer'd, directs.

I knew all this, because I have been working off and on for a couple of months on a post I will be making in the next month about the heretofore never noticed Jane Austen literary allusion to William Herschel AND also about the smaller, less famous astronomer-“star” who orbited around him, i.e,. his younger sister, Caroline, who was famous in her own right during JA’s lifetime as the femal comet-discoverer!

What I will be posting about as soon as I have followed a few more leads, is my claim that Caroline Herschel was a major allusive source for Fanny Price in Mansfield Park, and that it is Caroline Herschel whom Jane Austen specifically wished to honor in the famous star-gazing scene in MP, which, not coincidentally, ALSO (like Darwin’s poem) refers to Cassiopeia and the North Star!

So, again, very good on Ellen, because, for all the apparently frivolity of JA’s reference to “lunar observation” in Letter 149, there was actually all this rich subtext related to the Darwins (including the “Pole” Erasmus married!) and the Herschels.

Cheers, ARNIE
@JaneAustenCode on Twitter

Monday, April 14, 2014

The Answer to My Latest Jane Austen Riddle: Another Shakespeare Play Hiding in Plain Sight in Persuasion



Last week, I posed another Jane Austen riddle for your delectation:

“What is the single, famous, hidden allusive source which unites all of the following, seemingly mostly unrelated FIFTEEN story elements in Persuasion?:
1 In Chapter 15, the clock with its "SILVER SOUNDS" which alerts that Cousin Elliot has been visiting a long while.
2 Mr. Shepherd as advisor to Sir Walter.
3 All the pens (Sir Walter’s, Wentworth’s and Anne’s).
4 David Lodge's character Morris Zapp and his famous opinion about Anne’s intense experience when Wentworth pulls the nephew from Anne’s back.
5 Louisa Musgrove’s near-death experience.
6 Benwick’s extreme grief for Fanny Hargrove followed by his inconstant over-rapid shift of affection to Louisa.
7 Benwick being called just the right one to fetch the surgeon for Louisa .
8 NURSE Rooke, Mrs. Smith’s (imaginary) friend.
9 The APOTHECARY Mr. Robinson who treats Anne’s nephew’s shoulder.
10 Mrs. Croft being a long while with the MANTUAmaker in the cancelled chapters, as a key part of Admiral Croft and Sophy acting as secret matchmakers for Anne and Wentworth.
11 Anne’s family and Lady Russell discouraging her from marrying Wentworth 8 years earlier.
12Anne’s secret pining for Wentworth not recognized by her family, feelings she tried to BANISH but failed when she saw him again.
13 Harville’s and Anne’s debate re INCONSTANCY in real life & as depicted in literature.
The answer that unites the above 13 story points also reveals the more obscurely coded meaning in these two excerpts in Persuasion:
“…[Mary] was not easy till she had talked Charles into driving her over on an early day…”.
“This was the letter, directed to "Charles Smith, Esq. Tunbridge Wells," and dated from London, as far back as July, 1803…”    END QUOTE

Now I am ready to reveal the identity of that allusive source, which, as I also said, shares with Persuasion a uniquely strong reputation as being intensely romantic, and which my Subject Line today also tells you is a Shakespeare play.

But first, for those who want to produce the answer yourself, just Google the following seven search terms (which are all taken from the above clues, except for the last search term, which I recognized after posting the clues) together, and YOU will get yourself!:

MANTUA “SILVER SOUNDS” BANISH APOTHECARY NURSE HAZEL-NUT INCONSTANT

When I Google those search terms as a group, I get only six “hits”—the last two are for Persuasion, as makes perfect sense given that all the clues I gave relate to Persuasion, but the first four are for……

….
….
….

ROMEO & JULIET   (which of course is the answer to my riddle!!!)  --henceforth I will call it “R&J”.


Now I will VERY briefly run through all those clues again, this time with a brief explanation for how each one connects not only to Persuasion, but also to R&J, Shakespeare’s intense romtrag:

1 In Chapter 15, the clock with its "SILVER SOUNDS" which alerts that Cousin Elliot has been visiting a long while:  The image of “silver sounds” occurs several times in various forms in R&J. Austen scholars who have been mystified as to the significance of this cryptic quotation in Persuasion need be mystified no more as to its primary source, nor as to its meaning.  I.e., this is JA winking at a parallel between the mercenary motivation behind strong Capulet family pressure on Juliet to marry Paris, and the mercenary motivation behind strong Elliot family pressure on Anne to marry Cousin Elliot.

2 Mr. Shepherd as advisor to Sir Walter: This one derives directly from the answer to #1, above. As some members of Shakespeare's audience at a performance of R&J would surely have recalled, Spenser used 'silver sound' in The Shepheardes Calender (1579), also in regard to a lover’s unrequited pining.

3 All the pens in Persuasion (Sir Walter’s, Wentworth’s and Anne’s):  I have often posted about JA’s sexual puns on the word “pen”, and I am also far from the first to point to the phallic resonance of Wentworth’s “pen” which drops, and the debate about who holds the “pen”, etc., in Persuasion, and also, e.g., in Darcy’s preference to “mend”  his “own pen”, despite Caroline’s offer to do it for him.
Well, R&J ALSO has an amazing sexual pun on “pen” in a similar masturbatory sense when we first hear, in Act 1, Scene 1, about Romeo pining away for Rosaline before he meets Juliet:

Many a morning hath he there been seen,
With tears augmenting the fresh morning dew.
Adding to clouds more clouds with his deep sighs;
But all so soon as the all-cheering sun
Should in the furthest east begin to draw
The shady curtains from Aurora's bed,
Away from the light steals home my heavy son,
AND PRIVATE IN HIS CHAMBER PENS HIMSELF
Shuts up his windows, locks far daylight out
And makes himself an artificial night:
Black and portentous must this humour prove,
Unless good counsel may the cause remove.

And as if it were necessary to establish Shakespeare’s witty sexual innuendo, we also have, very soon thereafter, a related phallic pun in the bawdy exchange among Mercutio, Romeo, and the Nurse:

MERCUTIO  God ye good den, fair gentlewoman.
NURSE    Is it good den?
MERCUTIO ‘Tis no less, I tell you, for the BAWDY HAND of the DIAL is now upon the PRICK of noon.
NURSE     Out upon you! what a man are you!
ROMEO   One, gentlewoman, that God hath made for himself TO MAR.
NURSE   By my troth, it is well said; 'for himself to mar,' quoth a'?...

Indeed, that sexual pun was well said by Shakespeare, and was well noted and emulated by JA! And perhaps the “silver sounds” (#1, above) of the CLOCK in Persuasion are connected to this pun as well.

4 David Lodge's character Morris Zapp and his famous opinion about Anne’s intense experience when Wentworth pulls the nephew from Anne’s back:  Apropos the above passage from R&J when Romeo masturbates in his chamber, read this passage from Lodge’s novel about the fictional professor’s opinion that Anne similarly achieves that same result that Romeo privately obtained, although in a very different setting: “...she found herself in the state of being released from him..Before she realized that Captain Wentworth had done it....he was resolutely borne away……Her sensations on the discovery made her perfectly speechless. She could not even thank him. She could only hang over little Charles with the most disordered feelings. How about that?" he concluded reverently. "If that isn't an orgasm, what is it?" He looked up into three flabbergasted faces. The internal telephone rang. . . .

5 Louisa Musgrove’s near-death experience: I hardly need explain the parallel between Louisa’s appearing to be dead (and, some including myself have suggested, pretending to be dead) after her fall from the steps at the Cobb, on the one hand, and Juliet’s appearing to be dead after taking Friar Laurence’s special potion. Just think about the frenzied grief of the observers in both Persuasion and R&J!. What is most astonishing to me is that no scholar before me has ever drawn this parallel, even though these are both (obviously) extremely famous scenes. A master writer like JA with complete control over the reader’s point of view, and making her readers believe that Louisa’s fall is accidental and her injury real, could artfully conceal a parallel that otherwise would have been obvious.

6 Benwick’s extreme grief for Fanny Hargrove followed by his inconstant over-rapid shift of affection to Louisa:  Do I even need to explain the Austenian parallel to the love-sick Romeo, who initially pines away for unrequited love for Rosaline, only to IMMEDIATELY drop Rosaline for Juliet when he first sees her? That’s Benwick, who initially pines (with grief) for Fanny Harville until he becomes the man of the hour after Louisa’s fall, and then, BOOM!, he is in love with, and then marries, Louisa, in two figurative blinks of an eye.

7 Benwick being called just the right one to fetch the surgeon for Louisa:  A surgeon is a medical man, just as is an apothecary, so how slyly fitting it is, given the parallel that the immediately preceding clue established between Louisa-Benwick and Juliet-Romeo, for Benwick to fetch a surgeon to save Louisa’s life, just as Romeo gets powerful poison from an apothecary which he winds up taking when he does NOT recognize that Juliet is not really dead!

8 NURSE Rooke, Mrs. Smith’s (imaginary) friend: Just think about the parallels between Juliet’s nurse and Mrs. Smith’s Nurse Rooke—they both are intimate, influential attendants to their respective female charges, and are both also connected to the local community.

9 The APOTHECARY Mr. Robinson who treats Anne’s nephew’s shoulder:  You can deduce that I included this clue, because of the decisive role played by the apothecary in R&J, as the purveyor of the poison to Romeo.

10 Mrs. Croft being a long while with the MANTUAmaker in the cancelled chapters, as a key part of Admiral Croft and Sophy acting as secret matchmakers for Anne and Wentworth: I now believe that JA included this seemingly random detail about Mrs. Croft’s absence from her salon, because it winks at Mantua, the city to which Romeo is banished, and also where he procures poison from the apothecary. Look at this passage and think about how Romeo is, in effect, IMPRISONED in Mantua: “[Anne] probably, in the observations of the next ten minutes, saw something to suspect--& tho' it was hardly possible for a woman of [Mrs. Croft’s] description to wish the MANTUAmaker had IMPRISONED her longer, she might be very likely wishing for some excuse to run about the house, some storm to break the windows above, or a summons to the Admiral's Shoemaker below.”

11 Anne’s family and Lady Russell discouraging her from marrying Wentworth 8 years earlier: This clue also needs no explanation, I think, as R&J and Persuasion might just be the two most famous examples from English literature of where the family of the female end of a romantic couple does everything to prevent her marrying the man she loves.

12 Anne’s secret pining for Wentworth not recognized by her family, feelings she tried to BANISH but failed when she saw him again: And similarly, think about how Juliet pines for Romeo, and never for a moment wavers in her love for him—sound suspiciously like Anne Elliot, too?

13 Harville’s and Anne’s debate re INCONSTANCY in real life & as depicted in literature:  And do I need to explain about the theme of constancy in R&J? Harville might well have mentioned Romeo as a prime example from literature of a man whose constancy to Juliet never wavers, even though (as suggested above) Anne might well have countered with that same character, Romeo, and his extreme INconstancy to Rosaline!

14 And let me insert here about the “Hazelnut”—all Janeites know about Wentworth’s preference for a “firm “ hazelnut----well, how about these verses from Mercutio’s famous description of Queen Mab:

Her chariot is AN EMPTY HAZEL-NUT
Made by the joiner squirrel or old grub,
Time out o' mind the fairies' coachmakers.

15& 16 And now I conclude with two bits of textual wordplay in Persuasion which, given that the above clues have firmly established the allusion to R&J, become plausible as additional winks by JA:

 “…[Mary] was not easy till she had talked Charles into driving her o VER ON A n early day…”.

That would therefore be VERONA which of course is where the main action of R&J takes place!

“This was the letter, directed to "Charles Smith, Esq. Tunbridge Wells," and dated from London, as far back as July, 1803…”   

And finally, if we listen for the silver sound (so to speak) of that last date, it becomes “JULY EIGHT een o three” or “JULY EIGHT…”  or…………………JULIET!

Cheers, ARNIE
@JaneAustenCode on Twitter

Thursday, April 10, 2014

Another Jane Austen Riddle --this one about a heretofore undetected but major allusive source for Persuasion



Another Jane Austen riddle for you today.

What is the single, famous, hidden allusive source which unites all of the following, seemingly mostly unrelated FIFTEEN story elements in Persuasion?:

In Chapter 15, the clock with its "silver sounds" which alerts that Cousin Elliot has been visiting a long while

Mr. Shepherd as advisor to Sir Walter

All the pens (Sir Walter’s, Wentworth’s and Anne’s)

David Lodge's character Morris Zipp and his famous opinion about Anne’s intense experience when Wentworth pulls the nephew from Anne’s back.

Louisa Musgrove’s near-death experience

Benwick’s extreme grief for Fanny Hargrove followed by his inconstant over-rapid shift of affection to Louisa

Benwick being called just the right one to fetch the surgeon for Louisa

Nurse Rooke, Mrs. Smith’s (imaginary) friend

The apothecary Mr. Robinson who treats Anne’s nephew’s shoulder

Mrs. Croft being a long while with the mantuamaker in the cancelled chapters, as a key part of Admiral Croft and Sophy acting as secret matchmakers for Anne and Wentworth

Anne’s family and Lady Russell discouraging her from marrying Wentworth 8 years earlier.

Anne’s secret pining for Wentworth not recognized by her family, feelings she tried to banish but failed when she saw him again

Harville’s and Anne’s debate re inconstancy in real life & as depicted in literature


The answer that unites the above 13 story points also reveals the more obscurely coded meaning in these two excerpts in Persuasion:

“…[Mary] was not easy till she had talked Charles into driving her over on an early day…”.

“This was the letter, directed to "Charles Smith, Esq. Tunbridge Wells," and dated from London, as far back as July, 1803…”

I will reveal the answer by tomorrow (Friday) morning EST, or sooner if anyone guesses the answer.

When you guess (or hear) it, you will say "Of course!", because this source shares with Persuasion a uniquely strong reputation as being intensely romantic.

Cheers, ARNIE
@JaneAustenCode on Twitter